As we reported recently, the use of the Microsoft Exchange Server ProxyLogon vulnerabilities has gone from “limited and targeted attacks” to a full-size panic in no time.
Criminal activities, ranging in severity from planting crypto-miners to deploying ransomware, and conducted by numerous groups, have quickly followed the original exploitation by APT groups to spy on organizations.
With the focus of many security and IT professionals now firmly fixed on the world’s vulnerable Exchange servers, proof-of-concept exploits (PoCs) have surfaced left and right.
Some argue that since some attackers already possess exploit code, it’s only right for defenders to have it too, so they can test their systems by simulating what those attackers might do. Others say that PoC code doesn’t redress the balance because it’s a leg up for everyone, including criminals who haven’t created their own exploits yet.
And while most researchers deliberately omit specific components of a PoC, others feel compelled to publish full working exploits, enabling even the most technically challenged script-kiddies to use them maliciously.
All of which explains some people in the computer security community are busy tying to publish ProxyLogon PoCs, others are trying to stop them.
Purposely broken exploit
Bleeping Computer reports that a security researcher has released a proof-of-concept exploit that requires slight modification to install web shells on Microsoft Exchange servers vulnerable to the actively exploited ProxyLogon vulnerabilities.
“Firstly, the PoC I gave can not run correctly. It will be crashed with many of errors. Just for trolling the reader,” Jang told BleepingComputer.
Soon after the PoC was published, the publication reports that Jang received an email from Microsoft-owned GitHub stating that the PoC was being taken down as it violated the site’s Acceptable Use Policies.
GitHub under fire
GitHub received a ton of criticism for removing the proof-of-concept exploit. In a statement, the site said it took down the PoC to protect devices that are being actively exploited.
“We understand that the publication and distribution of proof of concept exploit code has educational and research value to the security community, and our goal is to balance that benefit with keeping the broader ecosystem safe. In accordance with our Acceptable Use Policies, GitHub disabled the gist following reports that it contains proof of concept code for a recently disclosed vulnerability that is being actively exploited.”
The main reason for criticism was that the vulnerability has a patch, so Microsoft had no reason to have the PoC removed. Some researchers also claimed GitHub has a double standard, since it has allowed PoC code for patched vulnerabilities affecting other organizations’ software in the past.
We have some sympathy with Microsoft here: a patch may be available but that doesn’t mean everyone is protected. A patch is only useful once it has been applied, and tens of thousands of servers are still unpatched.
Reverse engineering an exploit
To demonstrate how researchers go about turning a vulnerability into an exploit, Praetorian posted their methodology for a ProxyLogon attack chain.
By examining the differences (diffing) between a pre-patch binary and post-patch binary they were able to identify exactly what changes were made. These changes were then reverse engineered to assist in reproducing the original bug.
Cat is out of the bag
The problem with removing PoCs from a platform like GitHub is that the code will just re-surface elsewhere. It is very hard to make the Internet, as a collective brain, forget something.
Even if the author doesn’t post it somewhere else, there will always be that individual that has already copied the content before it was removed. Or another who is inspired to try to create their own.
For Malwarebytes Labs, one size doesn’t fit all. Sometimes a PoC can help to improve security, and sometimes some restraint is needed. Each situation needs to be judged on its merits.
The current situation is a crisis, and despite efforts to take down the emerging ProxyLogon PoCs, or neuter them by making them less than fully functional, you can bet they will be put to use by criminals. This while the owners of the remaining unpatched systems are scrambling to save what they can.
Other Malwarebytes posts on the ProxyLogon vulnerability:
- Patch now! Exchange servers attacked by Hafnium zero-days The announcement of the patch updated with updates about mitigation.
- Microsoft Exchange attacks cause panic as criminals go shell collecting About web shells and including a timeline for the vulnerability.
- Ransomware is targeting vulnerable Microsoft Exchange servers About the first ransomware attacks using this exploit.
Stay safe, everyone!